Although the website does not have a list of resources for action, it does contain an informative blog that the two authors update somewhat regularly. These states have all played important and influential roles throughout the duration of the conflict and have, as will be argued, led to the prolongation of the conflict in Western Sahara through their support for the positions and actions of both opposing parties.
In this conflict, Algeria plays a marginal role. At the heart of the dispute lies the question of who qualifies as a potential voter; the Polisario has insisted on only allowing those found on the Spanish Census lists see below to vote, while Morocco has insisted that the census was flawed by evasion and sought the inclusion of members of Sahrawi tribes which escape from Spanish invasion to the north of Morocco by the 19th century.
However, it is the United States in particular which shoulders the most significant portion of the blame.
Ways to show Western Sahara in maps Polisario controlled areas[ edit ] Main articles: The question of the Sahara is always brought up amongst parties that have interest in or against Morocco.
Morocco attempted to expand its influence in the areas occupied by Algeria because the strong Algerian soldiers rejected it. Having originally agreed to a ceasefire and the validity of the Spanish referendum in determining the eligibility of voters for the referendum, Morocco has reneged on both of these commitments, largely as a result of the lack of serious pressure it has faced from its allies and international bodies such as the United Nations.
Conclusion Little has changed since the beginning of the Western Sahara conflict — if anything, the situation has only gotten worse; years have been wasted, millions of dollars have been thrown away and thousands upon thousands of Sahrawis have been forced to flee their homes and live year after year in refugee camps.
The possibility of granting Western Sahara autonomy within the Kingdom of Morocco has been viewed as being the more realistic compromise of the two and it was this idea that James Baker pursued in By MayMorocco had made 97 of the total ceasefire violations and often obstructed UN patrols and vehicles, sometimes at gunpoint Durch, No replacement plan exists, however, and worries persist that the political vacuum will result in renewed fighting.
Indeed, shortly after the Houston AgreementMorocco officially declared that it was "no longer necessary" to include an option of independence on the ballot, offering instead autonomy. Baker As the status of Western Sahara slipped further into limbo and the stalemate between Morocco and Polisario continued and intensified, the appointment of Kofi Annan to the position of Secretary General of the United Nations came as a relief to many.
Kofi Annan began to express his doubts about being able to hold a referendum and encouraged Baker to further investigate the possibility of a political compromise Mundy, With respect to the military front, it is an obvious fact that a conflict cannot continue and a war cannot be waged without weapons.
Modern developments Thus far, this paper has sought to provide important historical context and depth with respect to the nature of the two primary parties involved in the Western Sahara conflict as well as the relationship that exists between them. Polisario calls the territories under its control the Liberated Territories or the Free Zonewhile Morocco controls and administers the rest of the disputed territory and calls these lands its Southern Provinces.
UN Peacekeeping in the Western Sahara. Bibliography can be recieved by request from author.
However, it soon became clear that Morocco had no intention of supporting this arrangement. Trump created further outrage after reports he used an expletive to describe African countries.
The same request had been made inbut France opposed it. Algeria would search for an outlet to the Atlantic Ocean and try to enclose south Morocco. On the other hand, Spain possesses a great interest in the resources of Western Sahara, which was clearly demonstrated in the access to resources that it required from Morocco in order to guarantee its signing of the Madrid Accords.
Moreover, the border closure weighs on the management of migration flows from Africa to Europe as the illegal traffic of drug and weapons and the growing presence of armed terrorist groups, including Al-Qaeda in the Maghreb.
Consequently, both sides blame each other for the stalling of the referendum, and little progress is likely to be made in the near future. The Plan provided that the Saharan people would manage democratically their own affairs, they would have the financial resources needed to develop the region in all areas and participate actively in the economic, social and cultural life of Morocco.
Citing the Spanish approach to regional autonomythe Moroccan government plans to model any future agreement after the cases of the cases of the Canary Islands, Basque Country, Andalusia or Catalonia.
The Polisario Front accepted this voter list, as it had done with the previous list presented by the UN both of them originally based on the Spanish census ofbut Morocco refused. Further attempts have since been made to resolve the conflict, but no lasting resolution has been achieved to date.
This expansion was violently opposed by Polisario, equipped with modern assault rifles and vehicles by the Algerian government, who used guerrilla tactics to disrupt mining operations within the Southern Provinces.
The language of a "mutually acceptable" yet "serious and credible" solution has begun replacing the idea of a zero-sum referendum. It was intended to replace the Settlement Plan of and the Houston Agreement ofwhich had effectively failed to make any lasting improvement.
The uncertain status of Western Sahara has outlined a radical opposition between the two governments, although the movements of the Arab Spring seem to make Morocco and Algeria go on an important, but weak rapprochement.
Instead, they have received support from a number of states on two distinct fronts: The conflict over Western Sahara has not been resolved satisfactorily in international law in the eyes of the Polisario or the Kingdom of Morocco.
The logic behind Morocco's occupation does receive a fascinating and detailed treatment in Chapter 2 "Arab Maghrib Disunity"where Moroccan designs on the Sahara are explained in the context of the kingdom's early postcolonial domestic politics. Morocco also attempted to add up toMoroccan citizens to the list, with claims of other ties to the region Northolt, The main interest of Algeria is to prevent Morocco — embarked on a policy of territorial expansion, especially in this area that provides phosphates and fossil materials — from having another outlet to the Atlantic Ocean.
As this conflict receives limited international attention, the recent book Western Sahara: War, Nationalism and Conflict Irresolution is a welcome addition to the literature on both the region and conflict studies. Co-authored by Stephen Zunes, chair of the University of San Francisco Middle Eastern Studies program and an authoritative voice on.
With respect to the Western Sahara conflict, Algeria has demonstrated its willingness to continue to provide Polisario with military equipment while France, the United States and to a lesser extent Spain, have maintained their supply of weapons, military funding and training to Morocco.
Western Sahara conflict impacts Morocco World Cup bid.
What's barely talked about is the impact of a territorial conflict that is impeding Morocco's bid. The purpose of investigating the conflict over the Western Sahara is to trace and analyze its impact upon the political stability of the northwest region of the African continent.
Chapter I provides background information on the Western Sahara. Chapter II discusses the international political developments affecting the Western Sahara.
The Western Sahara conflict is an ongoing conflict between the Polisario Front and the Kingdom of Morocco. The conflict originated from an insurgency by the Polisario Front against Spanish colonial forces from to and the subsequent Western Sahara War against Morocco between and The conflict over Western Sahara has not been resolved satisfactorily in international law in the eyes of the Polisario or the Kingdom of Morocco.
The proposed West Saharan independent state of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) is .The impact of the western sahara conflict