The use of statistics as evidence

When you use analogies to support your claims, always remember their power. Also called "Ad Hominem, Circumstantial. When you use analogies to support your claims, always remember their power. Domino See Slippery Slope. On that land there happens to be a river that your bosses think would make a great white-water rafting ride.

Far-Fetched Hypothesis This is the fallacy of offering a bizarre far-fetched hypothesis as the correct explanation without first ruling out more mundane explanations.

The fallacy occurs when we unfairly try to change the issue to be about the speaker's circumstances rather than about the speaker's actual argument.

Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking

The fallacious move was to conclude that the probability of the next toss coming up tails must be more than a half. As a result there is a difference in how death data were coded for and compared to previous years data with some deaths previously coded under mental and behavioural disorders now being classed as 'self -poisoning of undetermined intent' and consequently as suicides.

Equivocation Equivocation is the illegitimate switching of the meaning of a term that occurs twice during the reasoning; it is the use of one word taken in two ways.

Faulty Comparison If you try to make a point about something by comparison, and if you do so by comparing it with the wrong thing, then your reasoning uses the Fallacy of Faulty Comparison or the Fallacy of Q uestionable Analogy.

Be careful when using this type of evidence to try and support your claims. Although the rivers are different, the similarities between them should be strong enough to give credibility to your research.

Some women are Americans. Take the following example: Exhibits List exhibits showing use of the mark exactly, or substantially, as applied for. Brad is a nobody, but since nobody is perfect, Brad must be perfect, too. The point can be made without reasoning fallaciously by saying: For example, if Sigmund Freud shows that the genesis of a person's belief in God is their desire for a strong father figure, then does it follow that their belief in God is misplaced, or is Freud's reasoning committing the Genetic Fallacy.

The magician knows the order and is able to control the outcome of the trick. All rivers have banks. You CAN use this type of evidence to support claims, though, if you use it in conjunction with other types of evidence.

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We gave half the members of the hiking club Durell hiking boots and the other half good-quality tennis shoes. Reporters regularly commit this fallacy in order to appear "fair and balanced. If I call you a swine, then I call you an animal.

In science[ edit ] Cherry-picking is often used in science denial such as climate change denial. Where used State where in the UK the goods have been sold, or the services provided.

Etymological The Etymological Fallacy occurs whenever someone falsely assumes that the meaning of a word can be discovered from its etymology or origins. The latest report presents data on deaths due to probable suicides registered with the National Records of Scotland NRS during the six - year period - Aliens must have landed in a flying saucer and savaged the cow to learn more about the beings on our planet.

All the anecdote can do is disprove the claim that all immigrants who are non-native English speakers have terrible grammar. All banks have vaults.

Both sides seemed quite fervent in promoting their position. You admitted you didn't know the hooded man over there in the corner, but the hooded man is Socrates. When reasoning by analogy, the fallacy occurs when the analogy is irrelevant or very weak or when there is a more relevant disanalogy.

It is also underutilized, but this time for a reason. Generally, one-sided arguments are better with audiences already favorable to your message. False Balance A specific form of the False Equivalence Fallacy that occurs in the context of news reporting, in which the reporter misleads the audience by suggesting the evidence on two sides of an issue is equally balanced, when the reporter knows that one of the two sides is an extreme outlier.

It is conventional to pool rates over a five-year period, and develop rolling averages to account for yearly fluctuations.


The pollster is committing the fallacy by limiting you to only those choices. False Analogy The problem is that the items in the analogy are too dissimilar.

Using a recent IMF survey and expanding on previous studies, we document the use of macroprudential policies for countries over the – period, covering many instruments. Cigarette smoking harms nearly every organ of the body, causes many diseases, and reduces the health of smokers in general.

1,2 Quitting smoking lowers your risk for smoking-related diseases and can add years to your life. 1,2 Smoking and Death. SURE is a mechanism to support WHO to strengthen evidence-informed policy-making in Africa. About SURE.

Supporting the Use of Research Evidence (SURE) for policy in African health systems is a collaborative project that builds on and supports the Evidence-Informed Policy Network (EVIPNet) in Africa and the Region of East Africa Community Health (REACH) Policy Initiative.

Understand the statistical methods used in nursing research articles!


Statistics for Nursing Research: A Workbook for Evidence-Based Practice, 2nd Edition helps you interpret and analyze the statistical data found in health sciences research articles.

Practical exercises show how to critically appraise sampling and measurement techniques, evaluate results, and conduct a power analysis for a study. utilized in individual disparate treatment cases with success, and/or to preview potential pitfalls.

In describing the persuasive power of numbers, particularly the use of statistics to bolster and/ or weaken arguments, Benjamin Disraeli is frequently quoted as having said there are “lies. When writing an essay, you will often be asked to utilize appropriate sources for evidence, including facts and definitions.

In this video, we will.

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Cherry picking - Wikipedia